Submitted by: Odio @ 08:35 PM | Wednesday, December 14, 2016 | (url: http://www.scienc...)
If you looked back at Earth 170 million years ago, youd find a very different planet. The worlds continents were all linked up into one vast 'supercontinent' called Pangaea, and according to a new study, the outermost layer of the planet was 1.7 km (1 mile) thicker than it is today.
Researchers have found that since the break-up of Pangaea, Earths inner mantle has been cooling twice as fast as we thought, and it looks like its crust has been thinning out ever since.
"Its important to note [that] Earth seems to be cooling a lot faster now than it has been over its lifetime," says geophysicist Van Avendonk from the University of Texas.
"The current state of Earth, where we have a lot of plate tectonic events, this allows Earth to cool much more efficiently than it did in the past."
To be clear, when we say Earth has been cooling at an unprecedented rate over the past 170 million years, were not talking about the climate, which has definitely not been cooling.
What Avendonk and his team have been investigating is the international temperatures of Earth over time, and theyve found that the planet today is producing far less magma than it was during the time of the dinosaurs.
To trace the changes in Earths outer layer over the past 2.5 billion years, they analysed 234 measurements of crust thickness from around the world over a number of geological ages.
They found that oceanic crust formed in the mid-Jurassic 170 million years ago was 1.7 km (1 mile) thicker than the crust thats being produced today, and since then, the mantle below has been cooling much more rapidly than expected.
So why is Earths crust thinning out?
The outermost crust of Earth is formed by the mantle, which sits between the scorching hot core and the crust, spanning some 2,900 km (1,802 miles), and making up a whopping 84 percent of the planet's total volume.
Magma produced in the mantle forms the outer oceanic crust when it rises to the surface and cools into rock.
Submitted by: Odio @ 03:13 PM | Saturday, December 10, 2016 | (url: https://www.rt.co...)
Non-OPEC countries agreed to cut oil production by 558,000 barrels per day (b/d) during a meeting with members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna.
Among the non-OPEC participants at the meeting were 12 oil exporting countries Azerbaijan, Oman, Mexico, Sudan, South Sudan, Bahrain, Malaysia, Equatorial Guinea, Bolivia, Kazakhstan and Russia.
The 558,000 b/d figure was voiced by Qatar's energy minister at a press conference following the six hour long talks.
OPEC members also confirmed their commitment to the plan to reduce the oil supply by 1.2 million b/d. This, together with the commitments made by non-OPEC states, would lead to the total reduction of oil production by about 1.7-1.8 million b/d, Russian Energy Minister Aleksandr Novak said at the press conference.
Saudi Minister of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources Khalid Al-Falih told the press conference that 2017 would be a good year for the global oil market.
The parties to the negotiations also agreed to form a special group to monitor the observance of the agreement both by the OPEC and non-OPEC countries. The group would consist of three OPEC members and two non-OPEC countries, Novak said.
"This agreement cements and prepares us for long-term cooperation," Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih told reporters after the meeting, calling the deal "historic".
"Today's deal will speed up the oil market stabilisation, reduce volatility, attract new investments," Novak said.
The deal became the first such agreement between OPEC and non-OPEC countries since 2001. In April, OPEC and Russia tried to reach a deal on oil production which was cut during negotiations in Doha, but failed to come to an agreement, as Saudi Arabia sunk the deal at the last moment.
OPEC made a decision to cut its own output on November 30.
Submitted by: Goshin @ 02:31 PM | Thursday, December 8, 2016 | (url: http://www.nytime...)
time to remake jurassic park
While most paleontologists dig up prehistoric bones from the ground, Lida Xing hunts for fossils in the amber markets of Myanmar. In 2015, he made a remarkable find: Trapped in what looked like golden glass was the feathered tail of a dinosaur.
Along with the primitive plumage, the 99-million-year-old amber also preserved soft tissue and eight complete vertebrae. The tail bones indicated that the specimen belonged to a dinosaur that was not a prehistoric bird and also provided researchers with insight into the evolution of feathers.
This is the first time that skeletal material from a dinosaur has been found in amber, Dr. Xing, who is a paleontologist at China University of Geosciences in Beijing, said in an email. He and his colleagues published their findings Thursday in the journal Current Biology.
After performing a CT scan and microscopic analysis, Dr. Xing and his colleagues realized that the feathers did not belong to a bird because the specimens tail vertebrae were not fused into a rod, as they are in modern birds. The feathers most likely belonged to a baby nonavian theropod, meaning it looked more similar to a velociraptor or Tyrannosaurus rex than to a modern bird. That said, it was probably only about the size of a sparrow.
Submitted by: Odio @ 04:29 PM | Friday, December 2, 2016 | (url: http://www.coming...)
First announced for the big screen in 2014, Sony Pictures Entertainment, Mattel and Parkes+MacDonald/Image Nations upcoming live-action Barbie movie has finally landed a leading lady in Amy Schumer (Trainwreck, Inside Amy Schumer).
According to The Hollywood Reporter, Schumer will play a misfit living in a land of perfect Barbies who comes to the real world where her being/looking different turns into an asset. The film is said by the trade to be, a contemporary spin on beauty, feminism and identity in the comedic-fantasy vein of Splash, Enchanted or Big.
Although Diablo Cody (Juno, Young Adult) was previously attached to write the film, the current screenplay comes from Hilary Winston (The LEGO Ninjago Movie, the Bad Teacher TV series). Schumer and her sister Kim Caramele are expected to rewrite the script, and a director is currently being sought.
From princess to president, mermaid to movie star, Barbie has done it all through her more than 150 careers, she has gained valuable experiences and shown her fans that anything is possible for a modern woman. The toy line launched in 1959, and brings in $2 billion dollars annually. The comedic and contemporary film marks the second collaboration between Sony Pictures and Mattel, which are currently developing a film adaptation of Masters of the Universe, based on Mattels popular action figures.
Barbie is being produced by Walter F. Parkes, Laurie MacDonald and Amy Pascal.
Submitted by: Odio @ 10:23 PM | Tuesday, November 29, 2016 | (url: http://geology.gs...)
Fossilised bacteria have been uncovered in two separate locations in South Africa, and theyve been dated to 2.52 billion years ago - long before oxygen started to saturate Earths atmosphere.
Instead of thriving in oxygen, like the trees and multicellular organisms that came after them did, these bacteria oxidised sulphur to survive, suggesting that life could be sustained on a planet with less than one-thousandth of a percent of Earths current oxygen levels.
The fossils were uncovered in a layer of hard, silica-rich rock in the Kaapvaal Craton of the Limpopo Province in South Africa - one of the two remaining areas in the world where Earths crust from 3.6 to 2.5 million years ago is still accessible.
The sulphur-oxidising bacteria they revealed were "exceptionally large", according to the University of Cincinnati team that uncovered them, indicating that these life forms had no problem living in the absence of oxygen.
"These are the oldest reported fossil sulphur bacteria to date," says one of the researchers, Andrew Czaja.
"And this discovery is helping us reveal a diversity of life and ecosystems that existed just prior to the Great Oxidation Event, a time of major atmospheric evolution."
Submitted by: Odio @ 08:46 AM | Friday, November 25, 2016 | (url: http://www.scienc...)
Logbooks from the likes of Captain Robert Scott and Sir Ernest Shackleton - key figures in the 'Heroic Age' of Antarctic exploration - have revealed that sea ice levels in Antarctica have barely changed over the past century, despite global temperatures hitting record highs year after year.
That finding might seem counterintuitive, especially given that sea ice in the Arctic has never been so depleted. But it might actually help us explain one of the biggest mysteries surrounding climate change: how Antarctica appears to be thriving - and sometimes even expanding - despite all odds.
"The missions of Scott and Shackleton are remembered in history as heroic failures, yet the data collected by these and other explorers could profoundly change the way we view the ebb and flow of Antarctic sea ice," says lead researcher Jonathan Day from the University of Reading in the UK.
Day and his team examined observations of sea ice recorded in the official logbooks from 11 voyages that took place between 1897 and 1917, including three missions led by Captain Scott, two by Shackleton, and sea-ice records from French, German, and Belgian explorers.
These logbooks include observations of many environmental and meteorological phenomena, recorded several times a day throughout each mission by the explorers and their crew.
Many of the logbooks had been recently digitised as part of the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set initiative, but others were digitised especially for this study, and the information within was collated into a dataset of 191 observations of sea ice positions spanning two decades.
These observations were then compared to satellite data from 1989 to 2014, and other than the sea ice edge in the Weddell Sea declining by about 14 percent over the past century, the team found that ice conditions during the golden age of exploration were surprisingly similar to those in Antarctica today.
Submitted by: Odio @ 05:54 PM | Tuesday, November 22, 2016 | (url: https://fee.org/a...)
The Internal Revenue Service has filed a John Doe summons seeking to require U.S. Bitcoin exchange Coinbase to turn over records about every transaction of every user from 2013 to 2015. That demand is shocking in sweep, and it includes: complete user profile, history of changes to user profile from account inception, complete user preferences, complete user security settings and history (including confirmed devices and account activity), complete user payment methods, and any other information related to the funding sources for the account/wallet/vault, regardless of date. And every single transaction:
All records of account/wallet/vault activity including transaction logs or other records identifying the date, amount, and type of transaction (purchase/sale/exchange), the post transaction balance, the names or other identifiers of counterparties to the transaction; requests or instructions to send or receive bitcoin; and, where counterparties transact through their own Coinbase accounts/wallets/vaults, all available information identifying the users of such accounts and their contact information.
Submitted by: Odio @ 04:21 PM | Tuesday, November 8, 2016 | (url: http://www.popula...)
Researchers from UC San Diego are using vacuum tube technology to develop more efficient computer processors. The research could result in faster microelectronic devices and better solar panels. Their results are published in a paper in the journal Nature Communications.
Commonly thought of as a primitive precursor to the modern transistor, vacuum tubes were the building blocks of computers in the early 20th century, and computers built using them filled entire rooms or buildings.
The invention of the transistor in the mid 20th century allowed computers to be built much smaller, and paved the way for the computing revolution of the late 20th century. That being the case, the transistor is arguably the greatest invention in history.
Submitted by: Goshin @ 02:41 PM | Monday, November 7, 2016 | (url: http://www.nextbi...)
MAN, it's fun being right
I posted about this in my giant space thread in the first few pages and you guys called me a crack pot! Well you can crack your own pot!
1.2 millinewtons per kilowatt in a vacuum
http://forum.nasaspaceflight.com/index.php?topic=40959.2480 has a ton of posts regarding stuff
propellant-less space flight
that means mars in 70 days whenever we want + more
Submitted by: Odio @ 04:29 AM | Thursday, November 3, 2016 | (url: http://medicalxpr...)
(HealthDay)Three injections of a therapeutic vaccine may control genital herpes as effectively as daily pills for at least a year, a new study suggests.
Researchers tested the experimental vaccine in 310 people with herpes from 17 centers around the United States. The three shots, administered three weeks apart, appeared to reduce patients' genital lesions and the process of "viral shedding" in which they can spread the disease through sexual contact.
Infectious disease experts hailed the vaccine as a promising development in the treatment of genital herpes. The incurable disease affects about one in every six people ages 14 to 49 in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"In general terms, people receiving [the vaccine] have greater than 50 percent fewer days in which virus is present in their genital tracts, which in theory may reduce transmission," said study author Jessica Baker Flechtner. She's chief scientific officer at Genocea Biosciences, the Cambridge, Mass., manufacturer of the vaccine.
"However, this would need to be proven in a well-powered clinical trial," she added. "Our trials have included both men and women, and to date, we have not seen a difference in the vaccine impact between genders."
Currently named GEN-003, the vaccine is believed to work by prompting a type of white blood cell known as a T-cell to recognize and kill cells in which the virus lives, Flechtner explained.
Patients were randomly split into seven dosing groups, including a placebo group.
Testing was repeated periodically for 12 months after dosing and included analyzing genital swab samples for the presence of the herpes virus. The days when genital lesions were present were also recorded.
Submitted by: Odio @ 08:36 AM | Monday, October 17, 2016 | (url: https://www.rt.co...)
The mayor of the popular Bavarian resort of Garmisch-Partenkirchen has penned a letter to the regional government begging them to tackle the massive problems posed by crime rates among refugees, while police say blacks are in charge of the town.
The letter, part warning to regional authorities, part cry for help, has been sent by Garmisch-Partenkirchen Mayor Sigrid Meierhofer to the Vice President of Upper Bavarias government Maria Els on Sunday, according to Merkur newspaper which saw the document.
There has been an increasingly deteriorating situation over the past weeks around the refugee registration center Abrams, Meierhofer wrote.
The mayor then argued that the very future of her city could be in disarray because of the 250 migrants now living in the Abrams center. 150 of its residents are Africans, and unaccompanied young men make up 80 percent of them, while in previous years the facility mostly accommodated Syrian families.
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, a picturesque resort town in Bavaria, lies close to Germanys highest mountain the Zugspitze. Due to its mild winter climate, the town is also a popular holiday spot for skiing, snowboarding, and hiking, having some of the best skiing areas in the country.
Meierhofer made it plain that she is increasingly worried about public order and security, while most of the Garmisch residents believe migrants are responsible for most sexual assaults and petty crime in the area.
Bans on migrants entering certain places like the towns spa park have been imposed in the past few weeks, but massive problems are still there, she went on, saying this is not to be ignored or tolerated.
Submitted by: Odio @ 03:22 PM | Thursday, October 13, 2016 | (url: http://futurism.c...)
A PRODUCT OF PATIENCE
Australias National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) finally released its verdict on fluoride in drinking water. Analysis of 60 years worth of research and 3000 studies the largest and most comprehensive study to date revealed that fluoride in drinking water does not cause cancer or lower a persons IQ, under the levels used in Australia.
It shows that community water fluoridation as its used in Australia today is effective at reducing tooth decay and is not associated with any general negative health effects, NHMRC CEO Anne Kelso announced.
Submitted by: Odio @ 05:31 AM | Thursday, October 6, 2016 | (url: https://www.rt.co...)
This year's Oktoberfest saw the least amount of people turning up at the Munich event in 15 years, but still experienced an increase in sex crimes reported to police, the Local writes.
Around 5.6 million people visited the festival this year, a drop of 300,000 compared to the previous year. The number represents the lowest since 2001, when 5.5 million attended the event, which took place soon after the 9/11 terror attacks.
As the numbers dropped, so did the amount of crime with one type a notable exception. Thirty-one sex crimes were reported to police this year, compared to 21 in 2015, the Local reported.
Other incidents occurred which didn't always involve official police reports, according to the support group Safer Wiesn for Girls and Women, which counted 215 women who came to a security checkpoint for help. Eighteen of those had experienced violence. That number also represents an increase from last year, when 197 women came to the checkpoint for help.
The crimes occurred despite increased security at the event, which saw organizers arrange entrance checks for everyone attending the festival grounds for the first time in the event's 200-year history.
The increased security came amid ongoing terrorism concerns throughout Germany, following recent attacks. In July, a shooting spree in Munich left 10 people dead. That same week, a teenager in Wrzburg attacked train passengers with an ax and a man blew himself up outside a music festival in Ansbach.
Oktoberfest is no stranger to terrorism. One of the worst terrorist attacks in post-war history occurred at the festival in 1980, when a right-wing extremist set off a bomb that killed him and 11 others at the main entrance to the event.
Submitted by: Odio @ 04:40 AM | Wednesday, October 5, 2016 | (url: http://futurism.c...)
Similar to Teslas Autopilot, Comma One claims to be able to safely drive you from Mountain View to San Francisco without having to steer the wheel or step on the gas and brake. It can be installed on a small range of selected vehicles, but the creating startup, Comma.ai aims to make it compatible with more models in the future.
George Hotz, Comma.ai founder, stresses that this kit will not make a car fully autonomous, its about on par with Tesla Autopilot. Comma one takes advantage of a cars built-on front radars and is equipped with a camera. The key sensors that were getting back is the cam. Were actually getting back the video, even Tesla isnt doing that. We have all the video data.
The affordable price at $999 was possible because the add-on is made of inexpensive materials. The company plans to have the product available for shipping before the end of the year in very limited quantities.
In the end, this could fuel some healthy competition for autonomous driving. If this tech turns out to be as effective as any car manufacturers offerings, it could open up the possibilities for greater benefits and innovation in the field. If customers can buy affordable kits to give their current vehicles autopilot, car manufacturers are going to have to give greater incentives to get customers to buy into their offerings.
Submitted by: Odio @ 01:02 PM | Sunday, October 2, 2016 | (url: https://www.rt.co...)
The Pentagon paid a UK PR firm half a billion dollars to create fake terrorist videos in Iraq in a secret propaganda campaign exposed by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism.
PR firm Bell Pottinger, known for its array of controversial clients including the Saudi government and Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochets foundation, worked with the US military to create the propaganda in a secretive operation.
The firm reported to the CIA, the National Security Council and the Pentagon on the project with a mandate to portray Al-Qaeda in a negative light and track suspected sympathizers.